Little is known about the failures in the early development of the kidneys that result in kidney dysplasia. Most of them occur spontaneously or through exposure of the mother to certain medications or drugs and some, on the other hand, are genetic and transmitted from parents to children through autosomal dominant processes. Thus, these dysplasias are caused by a single defective gene from one of the parents. Each child born to a parent with kidney dysplasia has a 50% chance of inheriting a defective gene and being affected, says the best urologist in Noida.
What is the physiological mechanism of kidney dysplasia?
Fluid-filled cysts take the place of normal kidney tissue, and as a result, kidney function can deteriorate before or after birth.
What are the main clinical features of kidney dysplasia?
Kidney dysplasia is often combined with ureteropelvic junction obstruction, ureteral atresia, urethral obstruction, vesicoureteral reflux, and other urinary tract abnormalities. Thus, patients’ signs and symptoms depend on the extent and severity of kidney anomalies, explains the urologist in Greater Noida.
In the prenatal period, kidney dysplasia is always found by ultrasound screening and manifests as a multicystic kidney, pelvic cyst, kidney agenesis, or perception of a genital mass. In childhood and adulthood, conditions related to kidney dysplasia include voiding dysfunction, urinary incontinence, repeated urinary tract infections, flank pain or abdominal pain, vaginal discharge in women, palpable genital masses, and chronic kidney failure, states the urologist in Greater Noida.
Dysplasia usually only occurs in one kidney. With only one kidney affected, the baby can grow normally and have no or few health problems. But, if kidney dysplasia affects both kidneys, in most cases, the fetuses do not survive to the end of the pregnancy. Those who survive will need, from a very early age, to undergo dialysis and undergo a kidney transplant. A baby with kidney dysplasia may also have problems with the digestive system, nervous system, heart, blood vessels, muscles and skeleton or other parts of the urinary tract, says the urologist in Ghaziabad.
Kidney dysplasia or other congenital problems may be found during prenatal ultrasounds or ultrasounds performed after birth to assess for other symptoms. Symptomatic kidney dysplasia may be best investigated by kidney ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, and magnetic resonance urography. Eventually, a definitive diagnosis of kidney dysplasia can only be made after removal of a non-functioning kidney, by nephrectomy or autopsy, explains the urologist in Vaishali.
Nephrectomy (kidney removal surgery) of the dysplastic kidney is routine treatment, although there is currently a trend towards conservative management with careful monitoring. If the condition is limited to one kidney and the patient has no symptoms, he is monitored with periodic ultrasound to examine the affected kidney. A nephrectomy should only be considered when there are very bothersome symptoms that surgery can cure. Children with end-stage kidney function will require blood-filtering treatment (kidney dialysis) until a kidney is available to be transplanted, says the best urologist in Ghaziabad.