CLASSIFICATION OF SURGICAL INSTRUMENTS

October 18, 2021
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Surgical instruments are the set of elements used in surgical procedures. It is an expensive social good, very sophisticated, and delicate. Therefore, their care must be meticulous and standardized; they must undergo the chain of decontamination, cleaning, and sterilization process. 

The instruments are designed numerous, and the design is made on the basis of its function. By the way, Hippocrates wrote: “It is necessary that all the instruments are proper for the purpose that is pursued, that is with respect to their size, weight, and precision.” 

 This type of tool can be classified into the following metals:

Stainless steel:

This metal is obtained from the alignment of iron, chromium, and carbon, creating a general surgery instruments resistant to corrosion, in addition to receiving the tensile strength necessary to make deep cuts. On the other hand, thanks to a passivation process, this element is smoothed, sealing the metal, making it more resistant. The mirror finish, which due to its characteristics can make the light bounce, distracting the surgeon, there is also the anodized finish and the ebony finish.

 Titanium:

Surgical instruments created in this material are more resistant than stainless steel; it is not magnetic and has inert properties; its lineup is stronger and lighter in weight, plus, with a blue anodized finish.

Vitalio:

Necessary for the manufacture of orthopedic surgical instruments and dental implants. Its strength and durability make it desirable for this type of application.

Other metals:

It is possible to find surgical instruments made of copper, silver, aluminum, tungsten carbide, and gold.

Surgical instrument fabrication can be made of titanium, valium, or other metals. 

In this material, the different classifications will be indicated, and the most widely used sets or trays will be shown in healthcare centers in the province of Cienfuegos, excluding ophthalmological ones. 

On the other hand, surgical instruments can also be classified according to their function. Therefore, we can differentiate pieces of cutting, separation, apprehension, hemostasis, synthesis, and drainage.

  • Basic use:  all the tools of the basic hospital set belong to this group.
  • Special use:  here, we find specific pieces that are used in certain processes, such as cholecystectomy and laparotomy equipment.
  • Specialized use: such as heart-lung machines, laparoscopes, and garter forceps.

FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION

1) INSULATION AND FIXING INSTRUMENTS

2) DIERESIS INSTRUMENTS (for cuts)

3) DISSECTION INSTRUMENTS (to separate tissues)

4) PREHENSION INSTRUMENTS (to grasp tissues)

5) HEMOSTACIA INSTRUMENTS (so that it does not bleed)

6) EXPLORATION AND MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENTS (to see, search, look at something, and measure)

7) EXPOSURE INSTRUMENTS (something that is hidden, show it)

8) SYNTHESIS INSTRUMENTS (to join, suture)

9) SPECIAL OR OTHER INSTRUMENTS(those that do not fall into any of this classification)

Article Categories:
Health

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